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Corporate Governance in Chinese Company Law / 中国公司法中的公司治理


Author: Cao Zhentao
Date: November 13, 2013

Corporate Governance in Chinese Company Law

In China, under “The Company Law of the People’s Republic of China,” the internal organizations of a company is comprised mainly of a shareholders’ meeting, a board of directors, and a board of supervisors. The shareholders’ meeting is the highest authority, the board of directors is the executive institution, and the board of supervisors is the oversight body.

Theoretically, these three bodies are supposed to form a check and balance relationship. The 2005 company law also ensures employees’ rights in participating in corporate governance in that they have seats in the board of supervisors. From the surface, the theoretical foundation of the Chinese company law is in line with the shareholder primacy norm, which assigns shareholder interests first priority.

All shareholders of a company form the shareholders’ meeting committee. It is recognized as the most powerful organization in a company. The shareholders’ meeting committee represents the interest of the majority shareholders. However, it is not a standing authority because it usually holds a meeting only once a year to decide the most important matters. The Chinese Company Law does not allow the shareholders’ meeting to represent the company. It cannot directly deal with a third party and its powers are entirely internal. For example, shareholders’ meeting cannot make agreements with the supplier. However, it can urge the executives to make agreements with the supplier through shareholders’ meeting resolutions. Article 38(10) also gives more power to the shareholders’ meetings because it allows the shareholders to give themselves more power in the bylaws. In Article 104, majority rule in the shareholders’ meeting is set and one share can have only one vote in the shareholders’ meeting. The approval of a resolution proposed at the meeting requires one half of the majority of voting rights of shareholders present at the meeting. For important matters, such as amending articles of association, increasing or reducing registered capital, merger, division, dissolution, or changing nature of company, a two-thirds majority of the voting rights of shareholders present at the meeting is required. Chinese Company Law does not give the definition of “director,” but the Chinese Encyclopedia (Law Volume) defines a director as “a standing organ that carries out business and represents a company.” The definition is still vague, and the company law should give more guidance on how to understand the term. This vagueness gives executives too much power to explain the term in the daily operation. In Article 47, the powers of the board of directors are listed. The general picture Article 47 gives us is that the board of directors serves the shareholders’ committee. The shareholders’ committees will give general directions, and the board of directors are responsible for putting together a detailed plan and report back to shareholders’ meetings. As a standing organization, they will choose and supervise the management team to carry the plan they make according to the shareholders’ committee. In 2005, to better protect small shareholders’ rights in the board of directors, a cumulative voting method was introduced in the revision of company law. The length and the number of directors are also mentioned. According to Article 46, the term of office of the directors shall be provided for by the bylaws, but each term of office shall not exceed 3 years. Joint stock limited companies shall set up a board of directors composed of 5-19 persons. The board of directors may include representatives of the company’s employees.

Different from the structure adopted by United States Corporate Law, Chinese Company Law adds the board of supervisors as the main oversight organization. In the United States, the shareholders and the shareholders’ meeting mainly perform the oversight function. However, the board of supervisors is independent from the shareholders’ meeting and the board of directors in China. Article 54 lists the power of the board of supervisors. The main role of the supervisor is to safeguard and supervise the daily operation of a company. The expenses that are necessary for the supervisor to perform his/her duties will be borne by the company. A supervisor bears the obligations of fidelity and diligence to the company and may not take any bribe or other illegal gains by taking the advantage of his/her powers or encroach on the property of the company.

Related articles in the “Company Law of the People’s Republic of China” (2005 Version, Effective)

Article 38 The shareholders’ meeting shall exercise the following functions:
(1) Determining the company’s operational guidelines and investment plans;
(2) Electing and changing the directors and supervisors assumed by non-representatives of the employees and deciding the matters relating to their salaries and compensations;
(3) Deliberating and approving reports of the board of directors;
(4) Deliberating and approving reports of the board of supervisors or the supervisor;
(5) Deliberating and approving annual financial budget plans and final account plans of the company;
(6) Deliberating and approving company profit distribution plans and loss recovery plans;
(7) Making resolutions about the increase or reduction of the company’s registered capital;
(8) Making resolutions about the issuance of corporate bonds;
(9) Adopting resolutions about the assignment, split-up, change of company form, dissolution, liquidation of the company;
(10) Revising the bylaw of the company;
(11) Other functions as specified in the bylaw.
If all the shareholders consent to any of the matters listed in the preceding paragraph by writing, they do not need to hold a shareholders’ meeting and may made decisions and have the decisions signed and sealed by all the shareholders.

Article 104 When a shareholder attends a meeting of the shareholders’ assembly, he shall have one voting right for each share he holds. However, the company has no voting right for its own shares it holds. When any resolution is to be made by the shareholders’ assembly, it shall be adopted by shareholders representing more than half of the voting rights of the shareholders in presence. However, when the shareholders’ assembly makes a decision to modify the bylaw, or to increase or reduce the registered capital, or a resolution about the merger, split-up, dissolution or change of the company form, such a decision shall be adopted by shareholders representing 2/3 or more of the voting rights of the shareholders in presence.

Article 47 The board of directors shall be responsible for the shareholders’ meeting and exercise the following functions:
(1) Convening shareholders’ meetings and presenting reports thereto;
(2) Implementing the resolutions made at the shareholders’ meetings;
(3) Determining the company’s business and investment plans;
(4) Working out the company’s annual financial budget plans and final account plans;
(5) Working out the company’s profit distribution plans and loss recovery plans;
(6) Working out the company’s plans on the increase or reduction of registered capital, as well as on the issuance of corporate bonds;
(7) Working out the company’s plans on merger, split, change of the company form, or dissolution, etc.;
(8) Making decisions on the establishment of the company’s internal management departments;
(9) Making decisions on hiring or dismissing the company’s manager and his salary and compensation, and, according to the nomination of the manager, deciding on the hiring or dismissal of vice manager(s) and the persons in charge of finance as well as their salaries and compensations;
(10) Working out the company’s basic management system; and
(11) Other functions as specified in the bylaw.

Article 46 The term of office of the directors shall be provided for by the bylaw, but each term of office shall not exceed 3 years. The directors may, after the expiry of their term of office, hold a consecutive term upon re-election. If no reelection is timely carried out after the expiry of the term of office of the directors, or if the number of the members of the board of directors is less than the quorum due to the resignation of some directors from the board of directors prior to the expiry of their term of office, the original directors shall, before the newly elected directors assume their posts, perform the powers of the directors according to the laws, administrative regulations, as well as the bylaw.

Article 54 The board of supervisors or supervisor of a company with no board of supervisors may exercise the following powers:
(1)To check the financial affairs of the company;
(2)To supervise the duty-related acts of the directors and senior managers, to put forward proposals on the removal of any director or senior manager who violates any law, administrative regulation, the bylaw or any resolution of the shareholders’ meeting;
(3)To demand any director or senior manager to make corrections if his act has injured the interests of the company;
(4)To propose to call interim shareholders’ meetings, to call and preside over shareholders’ meetings when the board of directors does not exercise the function of calling and presiding over shareholders’ meetings as prescribed in this Law;
(5)To put forward proposals at shareholders’ meetings;
(6)To initiate actions against directors or senior managers according to Article 152 of this Law; and
(7)Other duties as provided for by the bylaw.

Writer: Cao Zhentao, Hopkins Nanjing Center MA ’13

作者:曹镇韬
2013年11月13号

中国公司法中的公司治理

根据《公司法》,中国公司内部的三大组织是:股东会、董事会、监事会。股东会是公司的最高权力所在,监事会负责公司的日常运营,监事会是主要的监督机构。理论上讲,这三个组织应该达到一种相互制衡的状态。2005年修订的公司法通过允许职工加入董事会来保证职工参与公司治理的权利。从表面上,中国的公司法的理论基础是股东本位,股东的利益是公司的首要关注。

股东大会由公司的所有股东组成,它是公司的公司内权力最大的组织。《公司法》第38条列举了股东大会的权力。股东大会代表了大多数股东的利益。但股东大会并不是一个常设机构,股东大会一年只召开一次会议讨论通过关于公司的最重要的事项。中国公司法不允许股东大会代表公司直接与第三人发生关系,股东大会的权力是纯粹公司内部的权力。股东只能通过股东大会决议来敦促董事会或相关高管来实现其权力的外延,比如股东大会可以通过决议来要求董事会和高管选择特定的供货商。《公司法》第38条第10款给予了股东大会在公司法基本规定上扩张其权力的可能性,这一条允许股东大会通过制定修改公司章程来给予自己更多的权力。《公司法》第104条确定了股东大会的多数控制的原则,一股在股东大会时只能有一票。股东大会投票时,一般的事项需要过半数。对于一些比较重要的事项,包括:修改公司章程、增减注册资本、分立、合并、解散、改变公司性质等需要有超过三分之二的绝对多数通过。

《公司法》并没有对董事进行定义,但《中国百科全书》(法律卷)将董事(会)定义为:“代表公司执行业务的常设机构”。这一定义很不清晰,因此公司法需要作出更详细的解释。但《公司法》中也是不清晰的,这就造成了在实践中公司的董事会及高管随意解释来扩大自己的职权。《公司法》第47条列举了董事会的权力,董事会的主要目标是服务股东大会。股东大会会为公司提供一个概括性的方向,而董事会负责制定具体的计划并向这一计划向股东大会报告。董事会作为常设机构负责选择监督管理层来实施股东大会制定的计划。为了更好的保护中小股东的权利,2005年起董事会选举可以进行累计投票。《公司法》对董事的数量和任职期限也作了规定。根据第46条,董事的任职期限由公司章程予以规定,但不得长于3年。股份有限公司的董事会应该有5-19名董事会构成。董事会中可以有职工代表。

不同于美国公司法中的公司架构,中国公司法也设立了监事会来实施监督职能。在美国,公司主要由股东和股东会来监督。监事会独立于股东大会和董事会。《公司法》第54条列举了监事会的主要职权,它的主要功能是监督公司的日常运营。监事会实施职权的必要费用由公司承担。监事对公司负有忠实勤勉的责任,不可以利用其职权接受贿赂或其他不法所得,或侵吞公司财产。

《公司法》相关法律条文:
第三十八条 【股东会的职权】股东会行使下列职权:
  (一)决定公司的经营方针和投资计划;
  (二)选举和更换非由职工代表担任的董事、监事,决定有关董事、监事的报酬事项;
  (三)审议批准董事会的报告;
  (四)审议批准监事会或者监事的报告;
  (五)审议批准公司的年度财务预算方案、决算方案;
  (六)审议批准公司的利润分配方案和弥补亏损方案;
  (七)对公司增加或者减少注册资本作出决议;
  (八)对发行公司债券作出决议;
  (九)对公司合并、分立、解散、清算或者变更公司形式作出决议;
  (十)修改公司章程;
  (十一)公司章程规定的其他职权。
  对前款所列事项股东以书面形式一致表示同意的,可以不召开股东会会议,直接作出决定,并由全体股东在决定文件上签名、盖章。

第一百零四条 【表决权与股东大会议事规则】股东出席股东大会会议,所持每一股份有一表决权。但是,公司持有的本公司股份没有表决权。
  股东大会作出决议,必须经出席会议的股东所持表决权过半数通过。但是,股东大会作出修改公司章程、增加或者减少注册资本的决议,以及公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的决议,必须经出席会议的股东所持表决权的三分之二以上通过。

第四十七条 【董事会的职权】董事会对股东会负责,行使下列职权:
  (一)召集股东会会议,并向股东会报告工作;
  (二)执行股东会的决议;
  (三)决定公司的经营计划和投资方案;
  (四)制订公司的年度财务预算方案、决算方案;
  (五)制订公司的利润分配方案和弥补亏损方案;
  (六)制订公司增加或者减少注册资本以及发行公司债券的方案;
  (七)制订公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的方案;
  (八)决定公司内部管理机构的设置;
  (九)决定聘任或者解聘公司经理及其报酬事项,并根据经理的提名决定聘任或者解聘公司副经理、财务负责人及其报酬事项;
  (十)制定公司的基本管理制度;
  (十一)公司章程规定的其他职权。

第四十六条 【董事的任职期限】董事任期由公司章程规定,但每届任期不得超过三年。董事任期届满,连选可以连任。
  董事任期届满未及时改选,或者董事在任期内辞职导致董事会成员低于法定人数的,在改选出的董事就任前,原董事仍应当依照法律、行政法规和公司章程的规定,履行董事职务。
第五十四条 【监事会或监事的一般职权】监事会、不设监事会的公司的监事行使下列职权:
  (一)检查公司财务;
  (二)对董事、高级管理人员执行公司职务的行为进行监督,对违反法律、行政法规、公司章程或者股东会决议的董事、高级管理人员提出罢免的建议;
  (三)当董事、高级管理人员的行为损害公司的利益时,要求董事、高级管理人员予以纠正;
  (四)提议召开临时股东会会议,在董事会不履行本法规定的召集和主持股东会会议职责时召集和主持股东会会议;
  (五)向股东会会议提出提案;
  (六)依照本法第一百五十二条的规定,对董事、高级管理人员提起诉讼;
  (七)公司章程规定的其他职权。

作者:曹镇韬,中美中心国际关系硕士2013

Author: Cao Zhentao
Date: November 13, 2013

Corporate Governance in Chinese Company Law

In China, under “The Company Law of the People’s Republic of China,” the internal organizations of a company is comprised mainly of a shareholders’ meeting, a board of directors, and a board of supervisors. The shareholders’ meeting is the highest authority, the board of directors is the executive institution, and the board of supervisors is the oversight body.

Theoretically, these three bodies are supposed to form a check and balance relationship. The 2005 company law also ensures employees’ rights in participating in corporate governance in that they have seats in the board of supervisors. From the surface, the theoretical foundation of the Chinese company law is in line with the shareholder primacy norm, which assigns shareholder interests first priority.

All shareholders of a company form the shareholders’ meeting committee. It is recognized as the most powerful organization in a company. The shareholders’ meeting committee represents the interest of the majority shareholders. However, it is not a standing authority because it usually holds a meeting only once a year to decide the most important matters. The Chinese Company Law does not allow the shareholders’ meeting to represent the company. It cannot directly deal with a third party and its powers are entirely internal. For example, shareholders’ meeting cannot make agreements with the supplier. However, it can urge the executives to make agreements with the supplier through shareholders’ meeting resolutions. Article 38(10) also gives more power to the shareholders’ meetings because it allows the shareholders to give themselves more power in the bylaws. In Article 104, majority rule in the shareholders’ meeting is set and one share can have only one vote in the shareholders’ meeting. The approval of a resolution proposed at the meeting requires one half of the majority of voting rights of shareholders present at the meeting. For important matters, such as amending articles of association, increasing or reducing registered capital, merger, division, dissolution, or changing nature of company, a two-thirds majority of the voting rights of shareholders present at the meeting is required. Chinese Company Law does not give the definition of “director,” but the Chinese Encyclopedia (Law Volume) defines a director as “a standing organ that carries out business and represents a company.” The definition is still vague, and the company law should give more guidance on how to understand the term. This vagueness gives executives too much power to explain the term in the daily operation. In Article 47, the powers of the board of directors are listed. The general picture Article 47 gives us is that the board of directors serves the shareholders’ committee. The shareholders’ committees will give general directions, and the board of directors are responsible for putting together a detailed plan and report back to shareholders’ meetings. As a standing organization, they will choose and supervise the management team to carry the plan they make according to the shareholders’ committee. In 2005, to better protect small shareholders’ rights in the board of directors, a cumulative voting method was introduced in the revision of company law. The length and the number of directors are also mentioned. According to Article 46, the term of office of the directors shall be provided for by the bylaws, but each term of office shall not exceed 3 years. Joint stock limited companies shall set up a board of directors composed of 5-19 persons. The board of directors may include representatives of the company’s employees.

Different from the structure adopted by United States Corporate Law, Chinese Company Law adds the board of supervisors as the main oversight organization. In the United States, the shareholders and the shareholders’ meeting mainly perform the oversight function. However, the board of supervisors is independent from the shareholders’ meeting and the board of directors in China. Article 54 lists the power of the board of supervisors. The main role of the supervisor is to safeguard and supervise the daily operation of a company. The expenses that are necessary for the supervisor to perform his/her duties will be borne by the company. A supervisor bears the obligations of fidelity and diligence to the company and may not take any bribe or other illegal gains by taking the advantage of his/her powers or encroach on the property of the company.

Related articles in the “Company Law of the People’s Republic of China” (2005 Version, Effective)

Article 38 The shareholders’ meeting shall exercise the following functions:
(1) Determining the company’s operational guidelines and investment plans;
(2) Electing and changing the directors and supervisors assumed by non-representatives of the employees and deciding the matters relating to their salaries and compensations;
(3) Deliberating and approving reports of the board of directors;
(4) Deliberating and approving reports of the board of supervisors or the supervisor;
(5) Deliberating and approving annual financial budget plans and final account plans of the company;
(6) Deliberating and approving company profit distribution plans and loss recovery plans;
(7) Making resolutions about the increase or reduction of the company’s registered capital;
(8) Making resolutions about the issuance of corporate bonds;
(9) Adopting resolutions about the assignment, split-up, change of company form, dissolution, liquidation of the company;
(10) Revising the bylaw of the company;
(11) Other functions as specified in the bylaw.
If all the shareholders consent to any of the matters listed in the preceding paragraph by writing, they do not need to hold a shareholders’ meeting and may made decisions and have the decisions signed and sealed by all the shareholders.

Article 104 When a shareholder attends a meeting of the shareholders’ assembly, he shall have one voting right for each share he holds. However, the company has no voting right for its own shares it holds. When any resolution is to be made by the shareholders’ assembly, it shall be adopted by shareholders representing more than half of the voting rights of the shareholders in presence. However, when the shareholders’ assembly makes a decision to modify the bylaw, or to increase or reduce the registered capital, or a resolution about the merger, split-up, dissolution or change of the company form, such a decision shall be adopted by shareholders representing 2/3 or more of the voting rights of the shareholders in presence.

Article 47 The board of directors shall be responsible for the shareholders’ meeting and exercise the following functions:
(1) Convening shareholders’ meetings and presenting reports thereto;
(2) Implementing the resolutions made at the shareholders’ meetings;
(3) Determining the company’s business and investment plans;
(4) Working out the company’s annual financial budget plans and final account plans;
(5) Working out the company’s profit distribution plans and loss recovery plans;
(6) Working out the company’s plans on the increase or reduction of registered capital, as well as on the issuance of corporate bonds;
(7) Working out the company’s plans on merger, split, change of the company form, or dissolution, etc.;
(8) Making decisions on the establishment of the company’s internal management departments;
(9) Making decisions on hiring or dismissing the company’s manager and his salary and compensation, and, according to the nomination of the manager, deciding on the hiring or dismissal of vice manager(s) and the persons in charge of finance as well as their salaries and compensations;
(10) Working out the company’s basic management system; and
(11) Other functions as specified in the bylaw.

Article 46 The term of office of the directors shall be provided for by the bylaw, but each term of office shall not exceed 3 years. The directors may, after the expiry of their term of office, hold a consecutive term upon re-election. If no reelection is timely carried out after the expiry of the term of office of the directors, or if the number of the members of the board of directors is less than the quorum due to the resignation of some directors from the board of directors prior to the expiry of their term of office, the original directors shall, before the newly elected directors assume their posts, perform the powers of the directors according to the laws, administrative regulations, as well as the bylaw.

Article 54 The board of supervisors or supervisor of a company with no board of supervisors may exercise the following powers:
(1)To check the financial affairs of the company;
(2)To supervise the duty-related acts of the directors and senior managers, to put forward proposals on the removal of any director or senior manager who violates any law, administrative regulation, the bylaw or any resolution of the shareholders’ meeting;
(3)To demand any director or senior manager to make corrections if his act has injured the interests of the company;
(4)To propose to call interim shareholders’ meetings, to call and preside over shareholders’ meetings when the board of directors does not exercise the function of calling and presiding over shareholders’ meetings as prescribed in this Law;
(5)To put forward proposals at shareholders’ meetings;
(6)To initiate actions against directors or senior managers according to Article 152 of this Law; and
(7)Other duties as provided for by the bylaw.

Writer: Cao Zhentao, Hopkins Nanjing Center MA ’13


作者:曹镇韬
2013年10月13号

中国公司法中的公司治理

根据《公司法》,中国公司内部的三大组织是:股东会、董事会、监事会。股东会是公司的最高权力所在,监事会负责公司的日常运营,监事会是主要的监督机构。理论上讲,这三个组织应该达到一种相互制衡的状态。2005年修订的公司法通过允许职工加入董事会来保证职工参与公司治理的权利。从表面上,中国的公司法的理论基础是股东本位,股东的利益是公司的首要关注。

股东大会由公司的所有股东组成,它是公司的公司内权力最大的组织。《公司法》第38条列举了股东大会的权力。股东大会代表了大多数股东的利益。但股东大会并不是一个常设机构,股东大会一年只召开一次会议讨论通过关于公司的最重要的事项。中国公司法不允许股东大会代表公司直接与第三人发生关系,股东大会的权力是纯粹公司内部的权力。股东只能通过股东大会决议来敦促董事会或相关高管来实现其权力的外延,比如股东大会可以通过决议来要求董事会和高管选择特定的供货商。《公司法》第38条第10款给予了股东大会在公司法基本规定上扩张其权力的可能性,这一条允许股东大会通过制定修改公司章程来给予自己更多的权力。《公司法》第104条确定了股东大会的多数控制的原则,一股在股东大会时只能有一票。股东大会投票时,一般的事项需要过半数。对于一些比较重要的事项,包括:修改公司章程、增减注册资本、分立、合并、解散、改变公司性质等需要有超过三分之二的绝对多数通过。

《公司法》并没有对董事进行定义,但《中国百科全书》(法律卷)将董事(会)定义为:“代表公司执行业务的常设机构”。这一定义很不清晰,因此公司法需要作出更详细的解释。但《公司法》中也是不清晰的,这就造成了在实践中公司的董事会及高管随意解释来扩大自己的职权。《公司法》第47条列举了董事会的权力,董事会的主要目标是服务股东大会。股东大会会为公司提供一个概括性的方向,而董事会负责制定具体的计划并向这一计划向股东大会报告。董事会作为常设机构负责选择监督管理层来实施股东大会制定的计划。为了更好的保护中小股东的权利,2005年起董事会选举可以进行累计投票。《公司法》对董事的数量和任职期限也作了规定。根据第46条,董事的任职期限由公司章程予以规定,但不得长于3年。股份有限公司的董事会应该有5-19名董事会构成。董事会中可以有职工代表。

不同于美国公司法中的公司架构,中国公司法也设立了监事会来实施监督职能。在美国,公司主要由股东和股东会来监督。监事会独立于股东大会和董事会。《公司法》第54条列举了监事会的主要职权,它的主要功能是监督公司的日常运营。监事会实施职权的必要费用由公司承担。监事对公司负有忠实勤勉的责任,不可以利用其职权接受贿赂或其他不法所得,或侵吞公司财产。

《公司法》相关法律条文:
第三十八条 【股东会的职权】股东会行使下列职权:
  (一)决定公司的经营方针和投资计划;
  (二)选举和更换非由职工代表担任的董事、监事,决定有关董事、监事的报酬事项;
  (三)审议批准董事会的报告;
  (四)审议批准监事会或者监事的报告;
  (五)审议批准公司的年度财务预算方案、决算方案;
  (六)审议批准公司的利润分配方案和弥补亏损方案;
  (七)对公司增加或者减少注册资本作出决议;
  (八)对发行公司债券作出决议;
  (九)对公司合并、分立、解散、清算或者变更公司形式作出决议;
  (十)修改公司章程;
  (十一)公司章程规定的其他职权。
  对前款所列事项股东以书面形式一致表示同意的,可以不召开股东会会议,直接作出决定,并由全体股东在决定文件上签名、盖章。

第一百零四条 【表决权与股东大会议事规则】股东出席股东大会会议,所持每一股份有一表决权。但是,公司持有的本公司股份没有表决权。
  股东大会作出决议,必须经出席会议的股东所持表决权过半数通过。但是,股东大会作出修改公司章程、增加或者减少注册资本的决议,以及公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的决议,必须经出席会议的股东所持表决权的三分之二以上通过。

第四十七条 【董事会的职权】董事会对股东会负责,行使下列职权:
  (一)召集股东会会议,并向股东会报告工作;
  (二)执行股东会的决议;
  (三)决定公司的经营计划和投资方案;
  (四)制订公司的年度财务预算方案、决算方案;
  (五)制订公司的利润分配方案和弥补亏损方案;
  (六)制订公司增加或者减少注册资本以及发行公司债券的方案;
  (七)制订公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的方案;
  (八)决定公司内部管理机构的设置;
  (九)决定聘任或者解聘公司经理及其报酬事项,并根据经理的提名决定聘任或者解聘公司副经理、财务负责人及其报酬事项;
  (十)制定公司的基本管理制度;
  (十一)公司章程规定的其他职权。

第四十六条 【董事的任职期限】董事任期由公司章程规定,但每届任期不得超过三年。董事任期届满,连选可以连任。
  董事任期届满未及时改选,或者董事在任期内辞职导致董事会成员低于法定人数的,在改选出的董事就任前,原董事仍应当依照法律、行政法规和公司章程的规定,履行董事职务。

第五十四条 【监事会或监事的一般职权】监事会、不设监事会的公司的监事行使下列职权:
  (一)检查公司财务;
  (二)对董事、高级管理人员执行公司职务的行为进行监督,对违反法律、行政法规、公司章程或者股东会决议的董事、高级管理人员提出罢免的建议;
  (三)当董事、高级管理人员的行为损害公司的利益时,要求董事、高级管理人员予以纠正;
  (四)提议召开临时股东会会议,在董事会不履行本法规定的召集和主持股东会会议职责时召集和主持股东会会议;
  (五)向股东会会议提出提案;
  (六)依照本法第一百五十二条的规定,对董事、高级管理人员提起诉讼;
  (七)公司章程规定的其他职权。

作者:曹镇韬,中美中心国际关系硕士2013

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