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China’s Social Security System / 中国的社会保障制度


Author: Tyler Ehler
Date: February 17, 2014

China’s Social Security System

China’s social security system has changed since the times of the previous danwei system. In the danwei system, Chinese people needed to ask their work unit for permission to make a trip, get married or have a child. While this means more personal freedom exists for the average Chinese, this also means that the social welfare functions that existed within the danwei system have also slowly eroded. To try and mitigate some of these problems, basic pension plans and healthcare coverage for employees and workers in the cities were introduced but thus far have not been extremely successful. Furthermore, the current pension plan simply doesn’t match up to social welfare programs in other countries. In the past, two major factors were at play that provided Chinese people with a greater sense of security: the fact that state-owned enterprises could be assured to provide the workers with employment, healthcare and pensions, and the belief that children would take care of their parents in their old age.

With the emergence of the private economy and employment in non-SOEs, these pillars of social welfare began to disappear. Performance-based contracts replaced lifetime employment and the one-child policy has made it difficult for one child to take care of elderly parents in the future. There needs to be a more effective social security system put in place that will allow for coverage of the costs of old age, medical care or unemployment. This will also allow Chinese consumers to place greater emphasis on domestic consumption. This is because a strong social security system would provide the Chinese with greater financial security and decrease their dependence on savings. This would also decrease the savings rate in China, which could then provide the boost to the domestic economy by increasing consumption and reducing China’s reliance on exports, thus allowing China to continue a strong growth rate without an over-reliance on global markets

For those working or looking to work in China, it is important to break down what China’s current social insurance is composed of. The passage of the Social Insurance Law in 2010 established the first comprehensive social insurance law in China with the aim to create a standardized national social security system. Although the law lays out specific implementation details, the Social Insurance Law is lacking in implementation details and enforcement of the law remains weak so that even if these social security benefits are supposedly a legal entitlement of workers, the reality is that many workers are denied these benefits. There are five categories: unemployment insurance, pension, maternity insurance, medical insurance, and occupational injury insurance. Housing fund contributions are also generally included in welfare because the additional costs are mandatory and come from both the employer and employee. Next, it is important to describe what these different categories entail.

Unemployment Insurance

Employers in major cities are expected to contribute to unemployment insurance and most cities also require employees to contribute. Individuals are expected to have worked for at least a year and provided contributions in order to be able to claim unemployment benefits. However, the benefits are unrelated to salary or accumulated contribution and are set at a fixed amount that is determined locally. The duration of the benefits relates to the length of time that a worker has contributed to the system. 24 months is the maximum length for which benefits will last, but those 24 months of benefits exist only for workers who have been employed for at least ten years.

Pension

China, like many other countries, does have a system in place to allow its citizens to maintain an income after retirement. Both the employer and the employee contribute on a monthly basis. The employee’s portion enters a personal fund and after retirement that employee can access those funds directly. The employer contributions on the other hand go into a social pool where funds are distributed to all people that have made contributions into the system during their working life. Thus, those people that used up the personal portion of their pension can still draw on the social pool to get some income to support themselves, even if the actual amount may be very small. Pension is the largest component of social insurance when considering the amount of contributions that need to be made by employers and employees each month. Employees who move from one jurisdiction to another will also be able to transfer their pension funds. Thus, the new Social Insurance Law attempts to address the lack of transparency individuals face relating to treatment of their pension, which often discourages them from moving to jobs outside the city they are currently in. This also reduces the overall mobility of labour; a problem in a country lacks skilled workers across the country.

Maternity Insurance

Employers are the only ones who contribute to maternity insurance. When an employee becomes pregnant she receives a lump sum. The maternity fund also covers the payment of salary during maternity leave. According to the Special Provisions on the Protection of Female Employees, women are entitled to 98 days of maternity leave allowances, which are paid out of insurance funds and are equal to at least the average wage at her employer.

Medical Insurance

Chinese citizens can contribute to the medical insurance fund in order to negate some of the costs of medical expenses in situations where they are ill or injured. Both employees and employers make contributions to this fund. The amount employees typically contribute is around two percent of wages which goes directly into the individual account while employers contribute between 7-12 percent of their workforce’s salary – a part of which goes into the individual account. In most cities in China, the patient is required to bear a certain amount of the total hospital fee. Reimbursement can be received for urgent medical treatment received in other cities. Individuals also receive a small amount of money onto their medical insurance card, which can then be used to purchase medicines at pharmacies or pay small medical expenses at hospitals.

Work-related Injury Insurance

Only the employer contributes to this fund and the amount of the contribution depends on what form of work the employee is carrying out. The more dangerous the work, the higher the percentage of salary contribution will be (usually between 0.5 and 2 percent of total salary). If the employee is injured at work then the employer applies for reimbursement at the occupational insurance fund. The employer also has to pay the salary to the employee during this recuperation period. If an employer were to fail to pay insurance premiums then they must personally cover all the costs.

Housing Fund

The social insurance law doesn’t cover the housing fund but it is often grouped with other social insurance programs since it functions in a similar manner. It is designed to help workers save some money in order to purchase a house or an apartment. Employers are required to pay at least five percent of a worker’s salary and it is usually matched by an equal contribution by the employee. The payments go into an individual account, which may only be used for housing expenses, and participants are entitled to apply for preferential housing loans. When the employee wishes to purchase a house, the money in the housing fund can be used to pay the initial down payment on the house, and it can also be used to subsequently pay back the loan to the bank. Individuals that have a lot of funds in their housing fund can also apply for a lower mortgage rate in comparison to a regular commercial loan. When the employee retires, the balance on the housing fund account can be withdrawn.

Social Security for Foreign Workers

Recent laws have also included foreign employees under China’s social security program and allow foreign employees to receive benefits similar to those described above. This will lead to decreased pay for foreign workers as a portion of wages will be put into the pension fund and will also subsequently increase employers’ costs. However, many foreigners would be unlikely to see the benefits as workers must contribute at least 15 of years to collect a pension after retiring and distrust in the system is likely to exist, thus for short-term ex pats in China it is unlikely to provide any major benefits.

These new laws could also lead to more difficulties for foreigners when searching for work in China as foreigners tend to demand higher salaries and the social security program would be an added cost to their employers. There could also be a push by employers to lower the salaries of their foreign employees. Foreign residents may still want to take care of their own health insurance to ensure adequate coverage.

For this program to work more effectively there should be arrangements for contribution of social insurance and how benefits can be transferred between two countries. This issue of transferability exists also for Chinese nationals, who often have issues transferring social security when changing jobs or moving to a new city. Thus, even if there are laws in place to have an effective social security system, a lack of enforceability and transferability exacerbate current problems and create spillover effects that harm China’s economy in other ways, such as adding to the potential housing bubble, leading to a higher savings rate which decreases domestic consumption and increased insecurity in the young generation who will have to worry about China’s aging population. As such, while there still needs to be a certain level of reform in the social security system, without effective implementation of new laws, any proposed solutions will be for naught.

Writer: Tyler Ehler, Hopkins Nanjing Center MA ’13

作者:Tyler Ehler
2014年02月17号

中国的社会保障制度

中国的社会保障制度从之前的单位体制时就已经开始发生变化。在单位体制下,中国人旅行、结婚以及生孩子都需要得到单位的批准。这一制度的改变意味着普通民众有了更多的个人自由,也意味着单位体制内部的社会福利功能在逐渐被侵蚀。为了试图缓和这些矛盾,城市开始实行基本的养老金计划和职工的医疗保险,但这些尝试还远远没有达到非常成功的地步。此外,中国当前的养老保险计划与其他国家社会福利项目难以匹敌。在过去,两大主要因素给中国人提供了更多的安全感:其一是国有企业确保职工的就业、医疗与养老金,其二是相信子女会赡养年迈的父母。
随着私营经济和非国有企业雇员的出现,上述两大社会福利支柱开始倒塌:绩效合同取代了终身聘用,独生子女政策使得一个孩子在以后难以照顾好其年迈的父母。现在需要出台一个更有效的涵盖养老、医疗和失业保险的社会保障制度。这也将会使中国的消费者更加注重内需。因为完善的社会保障体制可以给予中国民众更多的财务安全感从而减少其对储蓄的依赖。这也将会降低中国的储蓄率,从而促进消费并减少中国对于出口的依赖来发展经济,这将使中国不会过分依赖全球市场但又能继续保持高增长率。
对于那些正在或想在中国工作的人来说,分解中国当前的社会保险的构成则很重要。2010年颁布的《中华人民共和国社会保险法》是中国第一部综合性的社会保险法,旨在建立一个标准化的、全国性的社会保障制度。尽管社会保险法阐述了具体的实施细则,具体实施细节仍然缺失,法律的执行仍然很弱,以至于职工本应由法律授权的社会保障利益仍遭到否认。社会保险法涵盖五大类:失业保险、养老保险、生育保险、医疗保险和工伤保险。住房公积金通常也算入社会福利因为这一额外的支出强制由雇主和雇员共同承担。接下来,分别描述这些不同类型的保险所涵盖的内容很重要。

养老保险

与其他许多国家一样,中国也有职工退休后维持收入的制度。职工和用人单位每月共同缴纳养老保险费。职工所缴纳的部分计入个人账户,在退休之后这一部分可以直接支取。用人单位所缴纳的部分则计入基本养老保险统筹基金,这一基金将分发给在职期间缴纳过社保的所有人。因此,当人们用完了他们个人所缴纳的那一部分养老金之后,他们仍然能够从统筹基金中领取一些资金来维持生活,尽管这一部分金额可能会微乎其微。考虑到职工和用人单位每月所缴纳的金额,养老保险是社会保险的最大组成部分。个人跨统筹地区就业,其养老保险关系随本人转移。因而,新的社会保险法试着解决个人面临的养老金不透明问题,这一问题往往阻止他们在跳槽时离开当前所工作的城市。这也将会降低整体的劳动力流动性,使得整个国家缺少熟练的劳动力。

生育保险

生育保险费用由用人单位承担。当女职工怀孕之后,她会收到一笔一次性津贴。生育津贴包括女职工产假期间的工资。根据《女职工劳动保护特别规定》,女职工生育可以享受98天产假津贴,这一津贴由生育保险基金支付并不得低于其用人单位的平均工资。

医疗保险

为了能够承担生病或者受伤时候的医疗费用,中国公民会缴纳医疗保险费。用人单位和职工共同缴纳医疗保险费用。职工通常缴纳其工资的2%左右,并且直接计入个人账户。用人单位则缴纳其全体职工工资的7%-12%,这其中的一部分也计入职工个人账户。在中国大大多数城市,病人需要承担医疗总费用的一部分。如果在其他的城市接受紧急治疗,费用也能得到报销。个人医疗卡上每个月会收到一小笔钱,可以用来在药房买药或者用于支付医院的小额医疗费用。

工伤保险

工伤保险费用由用人单位承担,金额则根据职工从事的不同行业决定。工作的危险性越大,工伤风险费用占工资的比重就越高(通常占总工资的0.5%-2%)。如果职工受到工伤,用人单位向工伤保险基金申请补偿。用人单位仍需支付受工伤职工康复期间的工资。如果用人单位没有缴纳保险费,则需要用人单位自己支付所有工伤费用。

住房公基金

住房公基金不在社会保险法内,但它经常与其他的社会保险项目归为一类因为其功能与之类似。住房基金旨在帮助职工存钱用于购买房屋。用人单位通常需要缴纳一名职工工资的5%,职工也同样需要缴纳同等的钱。这些缴纳的钱都进入个人账户,但只能用于住房消费,与之相关者有资格申请优惠的住房贷款。当职工想要购买房屋时,公积金可以用来支付首付款,也可以用来偿还后续的银行贷款。拥有高额公积金的个人也可以申请比正常商业贷款相比利率更低的抵押贷款。职工退休之后,可以支取公积金账户上的余额。

新出台的法律使得中国的社保项目涵盖外籍职工,并且允许外籍职工得到与上述保险类似的保障。这将会降低外籍职工的收入,因为一部分工资用做了养老金,同时也会增加用人单位的支出。然而,许多外籍人士将未必能得到这些津贴甚至还会存有疑虑,因为职工必须至少缴纳15年社保才能在退休之后领取养老金,对于那些短期移居中国的外籍人士来说更不太可能为其提供主要津贴。
这些新的法律也将使得外籍人士更难在中国找工作,因为外籍员工通常要求更高的工资,而社保项目将会加重用人单位的负担。这也将促使用人单位降低其外籍员工的工资。为了确保保险有充分的覆盖范围,外籍居民可能还想自己承担他们的健康保险。
为了使之运转更为有效,需要商定社会保险的缴纳份额和如何在两个国家之间转移保险费用。中国国内也存在社保的转移性问题,在换工作或者搬到别的城市的时候社保转移经常会出现问题。因此,即便有法律规定完备的社会保障制度,缺乏执行力和转移性也会加剧当前的问题并从其他方面产生危害中国经济的溢出效应,比如加剧潜在的房产泡沫、引起更高的储蓄率从而减少内需并加剧年轻一代对于老龄化的不安全感。据此,尽管中国的社保制度仍需一定程度的改革,但是若新的法律不能有效施行,提出的任何解决方案都将是泡影。

作者:Tyler Ehler,中美中心国硕士2013

Author: Tyler Ehler
Date: February 17, 2014

China’s Social Security System

China’s social security system has changed since the times of the previous danwei system. In the danwei system, Chinese people needed to ask their work unit for permission to make a trip, get married or have a child. While this means more personal freedom exists for the average Chinese, this also means that the social welfare functions that existed within the danwei system have also slowly eroded. To try and mitigate some of these problems, basic pension plans and healthcare coverage for employees and workers in the cities were introduced but thus far have not been extremely successful. Furthermore, the current pension plan simply doesn’t match up to social welfare programs in other countries. In the past, two major factors were at play that provided Chinese people with a greater sense of security: the fact that state-owned enterprises could be assured to provide the workers with employment, healthcare and pensions, and the belief that children would take care of their parents in their old age.

With the emergence of the private economy and employment in non-SOEs, these pillars of social welfare began to disappear. Performance-based contracts replaced lifetime employment and the one-child policy has made it difficult for one child to take care of elderly parents in the future. There needs to be a more effective social security system put in place that will allow for coverage of the costs of old age, medical care or unemployment. This will also allow Chinese consumers to place greater emphasis on domestic consumption. This is because a strong social security system would provide the Chinese with greater financial security and decrease their dependence on savings. This would also decrease the savings rate in China, which could then provide the boost to the domestic economy by increasing consumption and reducing China’s reliance on exports, thus allowing China to continue a strong growth rate without an over-reliance on global markets

For those working or looking to work in China, it is important to break down what China’s current social insurance is composed of. The passage of the Social Insurance Law in 2010 established the first comprehensive social insurance law in China with the aim to create a standardized national social security system. Although the law lays out specific implementation details, the Social Insurance Law is lacking in implementation details and enforcement of the law remains weak so that even if these social security benefits are supposedly a legal entitlement of workers, the reality is that many workers are denied these benefits. There are five categories: unemployment insurance, pension, maternity insurance, medical insurance, and occupational injury insurance. Housing fund contributions are also generally included in welfare because the additional costs are mandatory and come from both the employer and employee. Next, it is important to describe what these different categories entail.

Unemployment Insurance

Employers in major cities are expected to contribute to unemployment insurance and most cities also require employees to contribute. Individuals are expected to have worked for at least a year and provided contributions in order to be able to claim unemployment benefits. However, the benefits are unrelated to salary or accumulated contribution and are set at a fixed amount that is determined locally. The duration of the benefits relates to the length of time that a worker has contributed to the system. 24 months is the maximum length for which benefits will last, but those 24 months of benefits exist only for workers who have been employed for at least ten years.

Pension

China, like many other countries, does have a system in place to allow its citizens to maintain an income after retirement. Both the employer and the employee contribute on a monthly basis. The employee’s portion enters a personal fund and after retirement that employee can access those funds directly. The employer contributions on the other hand go into a social pool where funds are distributed to all people that have made contributions into the system during their working life. Thus, those people that used up the personal portion of their pension can still draw on the social pool to get some income to support themselves, even if the actual amount may be very small. Pension is the largest component of social insurance when considering the amount of contributions that need to be made by employers and employees each month. Employees who move from one jurisdiction to another will also be able to transfer their pension funds. Thus, the new Social Insurance Law attempts to address the lack of transparency individuals face relating to treatment of their pension, which often discourages them from moving to jobs outside the city they are currently in. This also reduces the overall mobility of labour; a problem in a country lacks skilled workers across the country.

Maternity Insurance

Employers are the only ones who contribute to maternity insurance. When an employee becomes pregnant she receives a lump sum. The maternity fund also covers the payment of salary during maternity leave. According to the Special Provisions on the Protection of Female Employees, women are entitled to 98 days of maternity leave allowances, which are paid out of insurance funds and are equal to at least the average wage at her employer.

Medical Insurance

Chinese citizens can contribute to the medical insurance fund in order to negate some of the costs of medical expenses in situations where they are ill or injured. Both employees and employers make contributions to this fund. The amount employees typically contribute is around two percent of wages which goes directly into the individual account while employers contribute between 7-12 percent of their workforce’s salary – a part of which goes into the individual account. In most cities in China, the patient is required to bear a certain amount of the total hospital fee. Reimbursement can be received for urgent medical treatment received in other cities. Individuals also receive a small amount of money onto their medical insurance card, which can then be used to purchase medicines at pharmacies or pay small medical expenses at hospitals.

Work-related Injury Insurance

Only the employer contributes to this fund and the amount of the contribution depends on what form of work the employee is carrying out. The more dangerous the work, the higher the percentage of salary contribution will be (usually between 0.5 and 2 percent of total salary). If the employee is injured at work then the employer applies for reimbursement at the occupational insurance fund. The employer also has to pay the salary to the employee during this recuperation period. If an employer were to fail to pay insurance premiums then they must personally cover all the costs.

Housing Fund

The social insurance law doesn’t cover the housing fund but it is often grouped with other social insurance programs since it functions in a similar manner. It is designed to help workers save some money in order to purchase a house or an apartment. Employers are required to pay at least five percent of a worker’s salary and it is usually matched by an equal contribution by the employee. The payments go into an individual account, which may only be used for housing expenses, and participants are entitled to apply for preferential housing loans. When the employee wishes to purchase a house, the money in the housing fund can be used to pay the initial down payment on the house, and it can also be used to subsequently pay back the loan to the bank. Individuals that have a lot of funds in their housing fund can also apply for a lower mortgage rate in comparison to a regular commercial loan. When the employee retires, the balance on the housing fund account can be withdrawn.

Social Security for Foreign Workers

Recent laws have also included foreign employees under China’s social security program and allow foreign employees to receive benefits similar to those described above. This will lead to decreased pay for foreign workers as a portion of wages will be put into the pension fund and will also subsequently increase employers’ costs. However, many foreigners would be unlikely to see the benefits as workers must contribute at least 15 of years to collect a pension after retiring and distrust in the system is likely to exist, thus for short-term ex pats in China it is unlikely to provide any major benefits.

These new laws could also lead to more difficulties for foreigners when searching for work in China as foreigners tend to demand higher salaries and the social security program would be an added cost to their employers. There could also be a push by employers to lower the salaries of their foreign employees. Foreign residents may still want to take care of their own health insurance to ensure adequate coverage.

For this program to work more effectively there should be arrangements for contribution of social insurance and how benefits can be transferred between two countries. This issue of transferability exists also for Chinese nationals, who often have issues transferring social security when changing jobs or moving to a new city. Thus, even if there are laws in place to have an effective social security system, a lack of enforceability and transferability exacerbate current problems and create spillover effects that harm China’s economy in other ways, such as adding to the potential housing bubble, leading to a higher savings rate which decreases domestic consumption and increased insecurity in the young generation who will have to worry about China’s aging population. As such, while there still needs to be a certain level of reform in the social security system, without effective implementation of new laws, any proposed solutions will be for naught.

Writer: Tyler Ehler, Hopkins Nanjing Center MA ’13


作者:Tyler Ehler
2014年02月17号

中国的社会保障制度

中国的社会保障制度从之前的单位体制时就已经开始发生变化。在单位体制下,中国人旅行、结婚以及生孩子都需要得到单位的批准。这一制度的改变意味着普通民众有了更多的个人自由,也意味着单位体制内部的社会福利功能在逐渐被侵蚀。为了试图缓和这些矛盾,城市开始实行基本的养老金计划和职工的医疗保险,但这些尝试还远远没有达到非常成功的地步。此外,中国当前的养老保险计划与其他国家社会福利项目难以匹敌。在过去,两大主要因素给中国人提供了更多的安全感:其一是国有企业确保职工的就业、医疗与养老金,其二是相信子女会赡养年迈的父母。
随着私营经济和非国有企业雇员的出现,上述两大社会福利支柱开始倒塌:绩效合同取代了终身聘用,独生子女政策使得一个孩子在以后难以照顾好其年迈的父母。现在需要出台一个更有效的涵盖养老、医疗和失业保险的社会保障制度。这也将会使中国的消费者更加注重内需。因为完善的社会保障体制可以给予中国民众更多的财务安全感从而减少其对储蓄的依赖。这也将会降低中国的储蓄率,从而促进消费并减少中国对于出口的依赖来发展经济,这将使中国不会过分依赖全球市场但又能继续保持高增长率。
对于那些正在或想在中国工作的人来说,分解中国当前的社会保险的构成则很重要。2010年颁布的《中华人民共和国社会保险法》是中国第一部综合性的社会保险法,旨在建立一个标准化的、全国性的社会保障制度。尽管社会保险法阐述了具体的实施细则,具体实施细节仍然缺失,法律的执行仍然很弱,以至于职工本应由法律授权的社会保障利益仍遭到否认。社会保险法涵盖五大类:失业保险、养老保险、生育保险、医疗保险和工伤保险。住房公积金通常也算入社会福利因为这一额外的支出强制由雇主和雇员共同承担。接下来,分别描述这些不同类型的保险所涵盖的内容很重要。

养老保险

与其他许多国家一样,中国也有职工退休后维持收入的制度。职工和用人单位每月共同缴纳养老保险费。职工所缴纳的部分计入个人账户,在退休之后这一部分可以直接支取。用人单位所缴纳的部分则计入基本养老保险统筹基金,这一基金将分发给在职期间缴纳过社保的所有人。因此,当人们用完了他们个人所缴纳的那一部分养老金之后,他们仍然能够从统筹基金中领取一些资金来维持生活,尽管这一部分金额可能会微乎其微。考虑到职工和用人单位每月所缴纳的金额,养老保险是社会保险的最大组成部分。个人跨统筹地区就业,其养老保险关系随本人转移。因而,新的社会保险法试着解决个人面临的养老金不透明问题,这一问题往往阻止他们在跳槽时离开当前所工作的城市。这也将会降低整体的劳动力流动性,使得整个国家缺少熟练的劳动力。

生育保险

生育保险费用由用人单位承担。当女职工怀孕之后,她会收到一笔一次性津贴。生育津贴包括女职工产假期间的工资。根据《女职工劳动保护特别规定》,女职工生育可以享受98天产假津贴,这一津贴由生育保险基金支付并不得低于其用人单位的平均工资。

医疗保险

为了能够承担生病或者受伤时候的医疗费用,中国公民会缴纳医疗保险费。用人单位和职工共同缴纳医疗保险费用。职工通常缴纳其工资的2%左右,并且直接计入个人账户。用人单位则缴纳其全体职工工资的7%-12%,这其中的一部分也计入职工个人账户。在中国大大多数城市,病人需要承担医疗总费用的一部分。如果在其他的城市接受紧急治疗,费用也能得到报销。个人医疗卡上每个月会收到一小笔钱,可以用来在药房买药或者用于支付医院的小额医疗费用。

工伤保险

工伤保险费用由用人单位承担,金额则根据职工从事的不同行业决定。工作的危险性越大,工伤风险费用占工资的比重就越高(通常占总工资的0.5%-2%)。如果职工受到工伤,用人单位向工伤保险基金申请补偿。用人单位仍需支付受工伤职工康复期间的工资。如果用人单位没有缴纳保险费,则需要用人单位自己支付所有工伤费用。

住房公基金

住房公基金不在社会保险法内,但它经常与其他的社会保险项目归为一类因为其功能与之类似。住房基金旨在帮助职工存钱用于购买房屋。用人单位通常需要缴纳一名职工工资的5%,职工也同样需要缴纳同等的钱。这些缴纳的钱都进入个人账户,但只能用于住房消费,与之相关者有资格申请优惠的住房贷款。当职工想要购买房屋时,公积金可以用来支付首付款,也可以用来偿还后续的银行贷款。拥有高额公积金的个人也可以申请比正常商业贷款相比利率更低的抵押贷款。职工退休之后,可以支取公积金账户上的余额。

新出台的法律使得中国的社保项目涵盖外籍职工,并且允许外籍职工得到与上述保险类似的保障。这将会降低外籍职工的收入,因为一部分工资用做了养老金,同时也会增加用人单位的支出。然而,许多外籍人士将未必能得到这些津贴甚至还会存有疑虑,因为职工必须至少缴纳15年社保才能在退休之后领取养老金,对于那些短期移居中国的外籍人士来说更不太可能为其提供主要津贴。
这些新的法律也将使得外籍人士更难在中国找工作,因为外籍员工通常要求更高的工资,而社保项目将会加重用人单位的负担。这也将促使用人单位降低其外籍员工的工资。为了确保保险有充分的覆盖范围,外籍居民可能还想自己承担他们的健康保险。
为了使之运转更为有效,需要商定社会保险的缴纳份额和如何在两个国家之间转移保险费用。中国国内也存在社保的转移性问题,在换工作或者搬到别的城市的时候社保转移经常会出现问题。因此,即便有法律规定完备的社会保障制度,缺乏执行力和转移性也会加剧当前的问题并从其他方面产生危害中国经济的溢出效应,比如加剧潜在的房产泡沫、引起更高的储蓄率从而减少内需并加剧年轻一代对于老龄化的不安全感。据此,尽管中国的社保制度仍需一定程度的改革,但是若新的法律不能有效施行,提出的任何解决方案都将是泡影。

作者:Tyler Ehler,中美中心国硕士2013

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